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T HE r.'.Y JiiOLOGY Oi ' .ilr O F TH-. 

Submitted by 

i„ary Lois i.iaapin 

( A .B . ,Univers ity of Missouri, 1924) 

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A. General statement concerning the field of 

1. Two approaches 

a. Subjective 

b. Objective 

2. The stream of consciousness 
3. The problem and its scope 

1. The analysis of the mind stream 

2. Its relation to the problem of the 
adolescent girl 

a. Characteristics of the college girl 

b. Needs of the college girl 

3. Type of leadership 



1. View the individual ss a whole 

a. Adolescent girl's peculiarities 

b. These peculiarities influenced by 

(1) Girlhood 

( J Childhood 

(3) Rereaity 

(4) Environment 

2. Heredity - position held 

a. Physical 

Relati on between parent and child 

b. Liental 

Dependence of mental life on 

c. Variations and differences must be 


d . Original nature 

(1) Characterization of 

(a) physiological 

(b) psychological 

(z) Inherited nervous system 



(3) Self-consciousness 

3. Position held regarding: self-consciousness 

a. Part of original nature 

b. Unity of consciousness 

c. Two phases of conscious-self 
().) Subject self 

(a) Defined 

(b) Difficulties involved in study 
(2) Object self 

(a) Defined 

(b) interest of Psychology 

d. Position held fur this study 

4. Instincts 

a. Definition 

( 1 ) James 

(2) Pillsbury 

b. Differentiation from reflexes 

c. Various classifications of instincts 

(1) Norsworthy & hitley 

(2) Dr. White 

(a) Ego-preservative 

(b) Race-preservative 

(3) Pillsbury 

d. Instincts never show themselves in 
pure form 

(l) Influenced by 

(a) Reflexes 

(b) Learning 

(c) Experience 

e. Knowledge concerning instincts 
necessary for the educator 


1. Sensation 

a. Sensation the basis of learning 

b. Plaee of sensation in psychology 

c. Sensation defined 

(1) its relation to consciousness 

(2) Its physiological basis 

(a) Effect of stimuli on the organ- 
i sm 

(b) Path of sense- impressions 

d. Attributes of sensation 

(l) Difficulty in naming attributes 

(a) Cannot pic^ out a pure 
sensati on 

(b) Observation has not been 
iinif orm 



i i i 

(2) Titchener's sugaresti on 

(a) quality 

(b) intensity 

(c) clearness 

(d) duration 

e. Classification of sensations 

(1) popular coneeotion of five senses 

(a) sight 

(b) hearing 
fc) touch 

(d) taste 

(e) smell 

(2) In reality there are many more 

(3) General acceptea basis for classi- 

(a) According to degree of psycho- 
logical likeness 

(b) According to bodily organs 
invo lved 

(c) According to stimulus 

2. Sense-perception 

a. Its roots 

b. Definition 

c. Its function 

3. Memory, Imagination and Reasoning 

a. General statement as to relation 

b. Points in common 

(1) May be analyzed into simple sensa- 
tional qualities 

(2) Each follow la* of association 

(3) Each is concrete 
c . Memory 

(1) Differentiation between new and old 

(2) Memory defined 

18] P^Aia logical basis 

(4) Four processes involved 

(a) Learning 

( b ) Retent ion 

(c) Recall 

(d) Recognition 

d . Imaginati on 

(1) Definition 

(2) Relation to memory 

(3) Imagination dependent on two 

(a) Material available in form 
of usable images 

(b) Constructive ability of 



i v 

(4) Physiological basis 

(5) Types of imagination 

(a) Reproductive 

(b) Creative 

e. Reasoning 

(l) Preliminary statement 
( c.) Relation to thinking 

(a) Original basis of thinking 

(b) Dependent on structure 

(3) Reasoning defined 

(4) Its characteristics 

(a) It is purposive 

(b) Solution accepted as true 

(c) Action must be adequate 

(d) Solution may be applicable to 
many situations 

(5) Stages in the process of reasoning 

(a) Obstacles must be understood 

(b) Solution 

(c) Proof of solution 

(6) Illustration 

4. Emotion 

a. Definition 

b. Physiological relation 

c. Classification 

(1) Difficulty in classification 

(2) Thej may be divided 

(a) Purely instinctive responses 
ari sins' without preliminary 

(b) Those arising after contem- 

(3) Importance of emotions 

5. The Will 

a. Will defined 

b. Sources of the will - disagreement in 
regard to 

fl) Desires for certain ends 

(2) Struggle between contrary acts 

(3) 1 * om Experience - involuntary 
acts bee jme voluntary 

c. Features of the will 

(1) Foresight of some end 

(2) Approval of the end 

(3) Muscular movements to attain the end 

d. Voluntary acts ire "willing" 

e. Volu;,tary acts become choice 


1. Various stages may be characterized in 

a. Period of childhood 

(1) Distinguishing features 

(2) Limitations 

b. Period of girlhood 

Features distinguishing the period 

2. Specific changes during adolescence 

a. Physically 

b. Mentally 

(1) In 












Social instincts arise very 

Instinct of self-esteem 
Sexual and parental instincts 
highly developed 
sensati on 
Keen muscular response 
Keen response to light , color , 

drain connections respond 

.Jhole organism responsive 

Memory span is longer 

Richer memory experience 
imaginati on 

...ore virile 


More perfect control 
More adequate interpretation 
3etter view of relations 
emot ions 

Emotions deep and strong 
Range of emotional life 
More controlled 
the will 
Motor machinery regulated 
Habit formation 

3. Problems of leadership susreested by these 



1. Problems to meet 

a. Girl's whole personality beinrr unified 

b. In some oases complete change of character 

c. The supremacy of the intellect 

d. Her attempt to harmonize all of life 

e. She experiences general confusion 
d. Her whole personality at its best 

2. Qualifications of the leader 

a. Psychology of the girl indicates the 
psychology of the leader 

b. ..hat a leader is and her function 

c. Elements of the mind stream of the 
leader similar to those of the led 

d. Psychological characteristics of the 

fl) Instincts 

She must possess human instincts 
well controlled 

(2) Sensation 

She must oe super-sensitive 
to outside stimuli 

(3) She must oe resourceful 

(4) imagination 

(a) Heeds both types 

(b) At the root of 

(l) Complete understanding 
( z) Reality 

(3) Ideals 

(4) Humor 

(5) Sympathy ana justice 

(5) "^motion 

Mixture of intellectuality and 
emoti onal i ty 

( 6) The will 

Formation of good habits 

e. These characteristics must be developed 
to a marked degree 

f. Unification of personality 


1. Religious education has failed to study the 
college girl 

2. Consciousness of the adolescent girl is different 
from her consciousness at any other time 

3. Changes in adolescence cause new problems 

4. Special leaders must meet these problems 



1. General statement concerning the 
field of psychology 

2. The problem and its scope 


The field of psychology is so boundless that a study 
of this nature necessarily cannot be a comprehensive one 
but must be limited to some particular field. The mental 
life of an individual comprises an interesting study when 
viewed either subjectively or objectively, through the 
behavior or through self-observation. "An organism is not 
merely affected by external forces, but on account of its 
systematic organization it is able to control these forces 
to a greater or lesser extent. It receives imoressions from 
the outer wo?ld and acts accordingly. This characteristic 
inter-action, through stimulation, ad justment and response 
is called mental activity which constitutes mental ity, and 
the various activities involved in the process malce up the 
creature's mental life." The mental life consists of a 
succession of mental states. One neural process is followed 
by another, or in passing from center to center it undergoes 
modification so that the mental state is virtually trans- 
formed. The rise of a new mental state is due to the occurrence 
of some new stimulus and the succession or flow of exper- 
iences in cental life has been aptly called by James "the 
stream of consciousness". It is this mird stream that will 
be analyzed in some of its aspects. The analysis, as a whole 

chap. 1 p. 8 



will be from the objective view takins: into consideration 
the individual's response to stimulation or the effects of 
the influence of the environment on the individual, 

To correlate the stud; of the mind stream to a prac- 
tical problem the intention will be to relate it to the 
?irl in later adolescence attempting to discover psycholo- 
gically her differences, nualities and characterise ics , 
ttna to determine her essential needs. Fin«lly, the inten- 
tion will be to consider psychologically the type of a 
person who would be able to meet the college girl on her 
ovn level ana to bear a definite influence on her growth 
ana development. 



1. View the individual as a whole 

2. Heredity - position held 

3 .Self-consci jusness - position held 
4 .Instincts 




In spite of the fact that this study tends to em- 
phasize the period known as later adolescence it cannot 
be consiuered separate from the rest of life. "No single 
perioo. or stage in the life of the individual can be ade- 
filiate ly dealt vith except in relation to the whole of 
life; no single phase or capacity of tne individual mind 
can Lie aaeouatelv dealt with except in relation to its 
other and phases; no single reaction is in- 
telligible except in relation to the total setting, of 
circumstance arja stimulus , in vhich it occurred, and no 
single personality can be fully accounted for except in 
its reciprocal relations with the other members of the order." In the development of an individual we 
do not ae«l with ell d efined , clearly differentiated 
phases appearing in definite successive stages; Put, rather, 
we deal with just one individual whose single nature 
is ;rrndually unfolding itself throughout the course of 
its history, whether in ch ildhood .girlhood or womanhood. 
Any separation or singling out of any one period therefore, 
becomes merely a phase of the whole and is only instru- 
mental or methodological ratner than fundamental. 

The adolescent period appears to have characteristics 

Tracy, G.F. Psychology of Adolescence chap. 1 p.S. 

Llaci^illan CO. N . Y. 1921 




which are peculiar to that period alone. That fact, no 
one will demy; hut when an analysis is made the found«tions 
and beginnings of these seemingly distinctive adolescent 
traits will ue found back: in childhood, it has been sug- 
gested that the only differences between children and adults 
«re those of decree, it is psychologically true tha^the 
processes of association, of psychological correlation, 
of sensori-motor reaction, of instinct, of attention, of 
apperception and of habit are identical in orinciole, 
differing only as the immature differs from the nature, 
that is. in the breadth of the associative connections, in 
the volume and range of ideas and in the degree of power and 
precision in volitional action. Therefore, we cannot 
examine later adolescence as a life by itself but rather 
as a stage in the total life. B-.c': )f adolescence are 
girlhood and childhood, and back of childhood are the forces 
of heredity ana al . about are the diverse operations of the 
environment. ..arranted .therefore , is the study of the 
first ei^ teen years of a girl's life as a source of 
knowledge fro,., which to approach the subject of the 

college girl from eighteen to twenty-four years of a^e. 

I every judgment she makes can be traced out a background, 
rich or barren as the case may be, of gooa or evil influences 
which were formed early in life. In every judgment there 
is evidence of the dearree of early development of the 
cognitive , affect ive and conative factors. These cannot 
be explained by the present mode of behavior only in so 
far as that behavior is indicative of previous development 


of that individual. 

Furthermore, preceding these eighteen years there 
are considerations oonuerning heredity. Since life is 
oassed from parent to child through the medium of the 
germ plasm it must be admitted that the child is linked 
to his parents "by the very material out of which the 
child is forced and to the extent that this material con- 
tains definite tendencies to develop in certain directions. 
Therefore, near ancestry has much to do with the make-up 
of the child according to some authors. Investigation and 
obse;votion seem to prove that many physical characteristics 
such us features, relative size, general health and bodily 
energy are transmitted from parent to child. The nervous 
system is dependent on the original germplasm, so, mental 
traits, we may conceive, ore inherited to the same degree 
as physical traits, in fact some antors hold tenaciously 
to the point. For example, 'Nature is the preponent in- 
fluence in determining intellectual ability. Environment 

as regards intellectual ability tr intellectual life is a 


totally inadequate explanation." This statement would be 
porne out by the results of investigations in such strik- 
ing examples us the La ards and Kallikak families. The 


evidence /"on the side that a great portion of mental traits 
must be inherited although there are -ariationp T -hich occur 
frequently. There is a conviction that every new life in- 
herits much, not in the way of acquired char cter . sties 

* Ilorsworthy 'ma '/ihitley — Psy chology o f Childhood chap.l plO 
MacMill^n Go. N.Y. 1924 

c t 


of parents, perhaps, "but more in the direction of tempe- 
rament, capacity and instinct. Yet we do find in innumer- 
able cases that the congenital tendencies of a father 
though they he pronounced and unmistakable, need, by no 
means, reappear in the son. There ore frequent variations, 
small or great, from the ancestral stock. Certain qualities 
or traits may disappear for generations only to re-appear 
in childrens 1 children. But it aoes seem certain that 
each child inherits a bewildering multitude of tendencies 
for each child appears to possess innumerable possi oil it ies 
that musjtr have come to him as a result of the inter-marri- 
age of hundreds or thous&nds of families, llorsworthy and 

hitley attempt to relate the characteristics of original 
nature. They characterize it so--"The inheritance of an 
individual is In terms pf physiological structure, not in 
the terms of mental states. A baby is not heir to any ideas, 
his emotions or ide .Is are not ready made, he does not 
inherit consciousness as such, but he does Inherit a 
complicated nervous system, a system of neurones acting 
and developing according' to certain laws of growth, inj 
individual's original nature is related in some verv 
olose way to the action of his nervous system," 

?e carrot c insider the period of later adolescence 
separate end apart fror previous life; si"- 1 ? larly, we 
cannot study life In any way without a consideration 
of the congenital endowment of the child, a knowledge 

* Horsworthy ?- "'hitley-- Psycho" 1 ^-^y of Ohillh.:cd chap. 2 p. El 
Hi d Ulan Co. 1T.Y. 12 E4 


of the past experience of the ijomediate ancestors. Many ■ 
would go even further to include the contribution of the 
entire race. Most authors are able to agree on the point 
that ancestry does "bear some influence upon its descend- 
ants, therefore educators of every branch are faced with 
the problem. Every child possesses an original nature 
at birth which he has gotten from his ancestors. Some may 
be excellent; others ma}: be decidedly below average. Im- 
mediately the eaucctor aeets the problem of inequality 
ana he realizes that development will not be equ:l and 
uniform. But he finds that he is forced to investigate 
and analyze in terms applicable to the largest group, 
taking into consideration variations, ! bnormolities 
and super-developments from that mien. "The possession 
of an original nature means the possession of certain 
connections between neurones, J he possession of certain 
synapses which are in functional contact and across 
which a current may pass merely as a matter of struc- 
ture. Thus the individual, when born, is equipped with 
potentialities of character, intellect and conduct 
because of the pre-formed connections or tendencies 
to connections present in his nervous system." 

The child inheriting this nervous system is, 
therefore, the recipient of many unlearned tendencies 
which accompany the existence of the nervous system. 
These tendencies are mechanical in nature existing 

* ITorsworthy & ,'hitley -- Psychology of Childhood chap. 2 p 
-acMillan Co. N.Y. 19£4 




because of connections in the nervous system and there- 
fore, they are unconscious nd uncontrolled in their 
initiation. In so far as the nervous system acts inde- 
pendent of training or experience the result must be 
mechanical. "A child is not resoonsible for his conduct, 
thoughts or feelings in so far as they are a m nifes- 
tation of these unlearned tendencies; he acts merely as 
a machine controlled absolutely by its mechanism until 
experience, learning in some form, affects him.' 

Besides being mechanical these unlearned tendencies 
are constant. In the same organism the same stimulus 
must induce the some response, the same neurone action 
must produce the same result. 

Very frequently these original tendencies are de- 
layed, for their appearance is dependent on the growth 
and ripening of the connections between neurones. No 
tendency can appear until the synapses between the 
neurones which arouse it are in functional contact. 

However, these tendencies although mechanical and 
constant, are modifiable and on this fact alone rests 
all the civilization of the orld, all the culture 
of the ages, all the promise of the future. This is 
the field and function of all education: to seize up- 
on this capital and use it; to modify and direct the 
original capacit es no instincts of children so that 

* Norsworthy & Whitley — Psychology of Childhood chap. 2 p. 24 
MacMillan Co. N.Y, 1924 







they are fitted to live in the best which society 

has to offer, to appreciate and to add to it. Tbe work 

of education is largely a matter of modification. 

The concept of original nature which Norsworthy 
and V(hitley and numerous other authors present on the 
side of physiological psychology fails to include the 
theory of consciousness-- its origins and characteristics. 
Numerous theories regarding consciousness and the self 
have been advanced but the subject because of its elu- 
siveness is a very difficult one. However it is obvious 
that a relation between the physiological psychology 
explaining behavior and the conscious self will have 
to be clearly outlined. 

It is thought by some writers that consciousness 
is a part of original nature. "We assume that conscious- 
ness is present from the very beginning of the indivi- 
dual's life, In the very earliest stages of life there 
was no organization or differentiation of conscious 
experience .The litte consciousness which existed at that 
time was probably only a crude and unformed state of 
awareness. The first experiences to take form were those 
coming from the body and its org-.ns. Certain of these 
recurrent experiences formed themselves into the nucleus 
of the self. Gradually as consciousness of the body 
and its environments became clear and definite, certain 
experiences ":ere by their very nature more intimate 
and personal than others and these made up the threads 


which were gradually woven into the inner strands of 

the self, 'Gradually the self would come to include 

a larger ana larger content. 

The roots or antecedent conditions of the conscious 

self are native impulses and instinctive tendencies 

resulting in activities which color and modify the self. 

''The core of the self is the perpetual background of 

organic sensations, hich, with the instinctive impulses 

and activities constitutes the beginnings of the self." 2 
As new experiences are added to the conscious self the 
formation of nabits aads to the- reflex and instinctive 
impulses of the self. The self is not only a group of 
conscious states, but also a mass of habits, instincts, 
tendencies and attitudes. At first the consciousness of 
the child does not relate specifically to himself in a 
personal ay but rather bears a non-egoistic reference. 
The child observes the differences between objects and 
people and conceives that objects do not respond to 
his 065 res but he discovers that in many cases the 
people ibout him ill respond. Next he notices that 
their response is not uniform ana this leads him to 
realize that people are indepenaent in action, conse- 
auently he begins to exercise his own independence of 
action. It is through this process of recognition of 
the consciousness of the other people about him that 

1. creese, B.B. — P sycholo gy chap. 20 pp. 435-36 

Charles Scribner's Sons, N.Y., Chicago, Boston 

2. Ibid chap. 20 p. 436 


he grows into a consciousness of himself. The two 
sis. to go hand in hand. 

In the analysis of the child the analytical 
method will be used studying separately sensation, percep- 
tion, imagination, memory, reasoning and willing. This 
procedure is necessary in order that we m^ become 
better informed concerning the whole conscious organiza- 
tion. The direct mental elements have no meaning when 
standing alone. We never fine a sensation, a percept, 
a memory, a reasoning process, a feeling, an emotion 
or a will act existing by itself. One of these elements 
may be dominant but back of each mental process is a 
background of .consciousness representing 8n organized 
und unified content which hangs to-gether in a unique 
^nd personal way. Each mental state is outlined against 
the other experiences which lie outsiae the focus of 
attention. Organic and bodily sensations, aches and 
pains, marginal visional and auditory presentations, 
fading images of experiences, memories of remote or recent 
scenes, hopes ana desires all join to make up this 
background . 

Behind this extensive group of mental states there 
is a marked continuity-- a continuous unity which ap- 
pears in each individual stream of consciousness. There 
is cja organization of experience into a unity in which 
all aspects and processes of consciousness are represented 
and this complex organization is the self. 


"Philosophers, looking at the problem metaphysi- 
cally, have sought to explain this unity by assuming that 
back of the conscious states themselves there exists for 
each individual a single unanalyzaule subject self or 
ego, to which the various parts of his experience are 
presented and unifi ed 1 It is evident as McDougal says: 
''Consciousness does not exist of itself, but is an activi- 
ty of some being which we may call sub ject . " * Breese ana- 
lyses it further, "The subject self is that hich persists 
through .11 the changing experiences of the individual 
and is therefore the psychical being to hich all these 
experiences are presented. It is supposed to possess 
powers, capacities, attributes and dispositions v:hich 
account for its outward and observable characteristics." 
The subject side of self is --hat Kant has called the 
"pure ego". 

Every subject in its functional aspect must 

have its correlative in an object. "To be conscious is to 

be conscious of something; which thing is properly called 


the object of my consciousness." This forms what may be 

called the content side of self or as Kant terms it 

the "empirical self". "On the content side of conscious- 

1. Breese, B.B. — Psychology chap. 20 p. $33 

Charles Scrlbner's Sons N.Y., Chicago, Boston 1922 

2. i.iCi*ougal, ..illiam-- Psychology chap. 2 p . 60 

Henry Holt & Co. ET.Y. 1916 

3. Breese ,c. B. -- Psychology Introduction p. 17 

Charles Scribner 1 s Sons N.Y., Chicago, Boston 1922 

4. MaDotlgal, .illiam-- Psychology chap. 2 o. 60 

Henry Holt & Co. N.Y. 1916 




ness the self is the most central, intimate and per- 
sistent core of experience of an individual; that eon- 
tent which changes slowly hut grows nd develops as we 
"become familiar with our own nature and the world about 
us. it is made up of our "bodily sensations and our sen- 
suous appetites, our private feelings and insistent memories, 
our real desires and familiar thoughts and ideas." 

Psychologists find great difficulty in making 
studies of the suject side of the self for it eludes 
observation and statements that are made can never be 
checked up by actual experience for the experience would 
differ in each individual and could never be thoroughly 
analyzed by the observer for his experience would not be 
the experience o the person observed. So scientists 
are forced to turn to the content side of consciousness 
and to tlj to find principles of unity in the experiences 
themselves. In doing this the intention is not to rule out 
any further investigation of the subject side but it ob- 
viously leads into the world of metaphysical reality. So 
the safe ground of the psychologist seems to be at present 
on the content side of the self which limits us to the 
world of facts. In so doing for this study a cross section 
of the stream of consciousness will be treated analytically 
going into various conscious states or mental processes. 
The structural point of view therefore, will be taken. 
The laws of mental activity will be studied as seen through 

* Breese ,B.B. -- Psychology introduction p. 17-18 

Charles Scribner's Sons N.Y., Chicago, Boston 19E2 





behavior but these various conscious states, though studied 
separately only for immediate convenience, will in turn 
stand out in dominance against the background of all other 
conscious states. The unity and continuity of conscious- 
ness will then be preserved. The use of behavior as a means 
of interpreting the content side of the conscious self is 
the only available method of jroceaure. 

The above statement of position and ground held con- 
cerning the conscious self and its behavior may serve to 
clarify and interpret the basis on which progress is made 
in tnis thesis . 

There is a group of tendencies which seens to accom- 
pany the individual. Some of these tendencies aopear at 
birth and others do not aopear until later in life. These 
are often called instincts. Numerous and far differing 
theories of instinct have been advanced especially where 
theoretical classifications have been attempted, 7illiam 
James suggests th^t an inbtinct is a tendency to act in a 
given situation without experience or pre-knowledge of the 
result. These reactions, however, are somewhat distinct 
from reflexes. At birth many of the synapses are open 
and these determine the course of many of the early re- 
sponses. Closely related to these reflexes and also part 
of the natural endowment of men are other movements and 
tendencies to movement — -the instincts. The problem of 
their origin seems to be an unsolved one. "Instincts are 

1 1 


nervous dispositions that have been developed in the 
different species and are then inherited. The way in 
which instincts might arise has attracted most attention 
since the inheritance is largely taken for granted."! 
Pillsbury concludes that instincts must he due to the 
selection of the individuals who chance to develop those 
tendencies favorable to survival. As a result of this 
selection we find men as beings provided with many of the 
structures essential to their present method of living. 
"We must assume that there are a number of the most funda- 
mental reactions and demands of the organism which are 
present in it from birth and serve as a foundation for the 
super-structure of learning, in part these are specific 
acts or groups of acts, in part thej make their effect 
felt as ends toward which the organism must struggle by 
",-hatever movements it may have at its disposal. There seems 
to be a possibility of making either the movements that 
are aroused through instinct, or the feeling that accom- 
panies the movement, fundamental in the explanation of all 
instincts."'" In instincts we seem to find the source of 
most of the movements and many of the feelings that we 
cannot explain by Immediate stimuli or from the earlier 
experience of the individual. 

There is little chance for close agreement among 
all psychologists as to just how many and the basis on 

1. Pillsbury. 7 /. B. - - The F undamentals of Psych ology chap. 12 d.439 
Macllillan Go. N.Y. 1920 

2. Ibid 

chap. 12 p. 440 


which classifications of instincts are made. Norsworthy 
and Whitley name 'general physical act ivi ties , bodily 
movement--spontaneous and voluntary-- vocal izati on, food- 
getting, teasing, ownership , c ol lecting and fighting as some 
of the major instincts."! On the other hand Dr .White in 
his book on mental hygiene makes only two groups in his 
classification, "( 1 ) the ego-preservative irstinct having to 
do v.lth the self-assertion or power of the individual, and 
(E)the race-preservative instinct having to do with social, 
parental and sexual desires." 2 Pillsbury suggests a general 
classification witn reference to the end the act subserves 
rather than to the specific character of the particular 
instinct. "(l)Those instincts which preserve the life and 
provide for the welfare of the individual ;( 2 ) those which 
provide for the continuance of the race and for the family; 
and(3)those which make for the welfare of the tribe or for 
the social unit." This classification does not discriminate 
closely for some acts would belong to more than one class. 
It must be remembered that instincts never show themselves 
in isolation or in pure form. They are always influenced 
by the reflexes and by learning in the form of habit and 
reasoning. Experiment and development are necessary to the 
perfection of the instincts for the simplest instinctive 
acts are not performed on their first trial in their full 

1 .Norsworthy and ;hitley, Psychology of Chi ldhood chaD.3 p. 42 

MscMillan Go. N.Y. 19 20 

2 .White f W. A. Mental Hyg iene in Childhood chap 

Little, Brown &Co. Boston 1923 

3. Pillsbury f W.B. Fundamentals of Psychology chap. 12 p. 426 illan Co. I .Y. 19^0 





perfection. Both oractice and intelligent guidance are 
needed before great accuracy is attained, in spite of the fact 
that instincts unfold one by one as the corresponding growth 
takes olace. Instinct is developed .modified and even re- 
strained through experience and is reduced to conventional 
type by social pressure. It is for these reasons that the 
educator must know the nature of instincts for much of his 
attention .".ill be centered on the modif ication, direct i on 
and control of the child's original nature of which instinct 
is a vital part. 






1. Sensation 

2. Sense-perception 

3. Memory 

4. Amotion 

5. fill 



The discussion of the first chapter has concerned 
itself primarily with general principles and considera- 
tions of factors which comprise the original nature of the 
child. The subseouent considerations will concern that 
comprehensive mental development which begins at the. first 
hour of the child's life in the world and has its most 
spectacular development in the first twenty years of the life 
of the individual. When the child enters the world he is 
a bundle of tendencies, of possibilities, of potentialities; 
ever;,thinsr is a confusion — blurred and indistinguishable. 
He possesses no exoerience, has had no opoortunity to try 
anything out or to experiment ;he has no knowledge of himself 
or the world he is entering. Immediately his learning process 
begins--a process of ad justment , of growth, of arrangement, 
of experiment ana of clarification. There must be a begin- 
ning point of the acquirement of knowledge and psychologists 
seem fairly well agreed that this genesis lies in sensation 
which depends directly upon the nervous system. "All the 
materials of our Imo-.'ledge are derived from sensation. We 
have .}ust as many different sorts of consciousness as we have 
Qualities of sensation, and consci usness persists apparently 
only so long as impressions are playing upon our sense organs. 
The old sensational ists ,Hobbes and Locke , e .g. , insisted 

that there could be nothing in mind that had not been pre- 



<■ t f 



viously in sense. ..hile roe do not accept the principle 
quite so literally as they did, yet it is easy to see that 
the fundamental qualities of mind are derived altogether 
from the external senses. One can imagine no color or sound 
that has not st sometime been seen or heard; or, to put it 
more conservatively, one can call to mind no quality of 
any kind that has not at one time come through the senses. ,?i 
Even though we cannot declare that all ideas come from 
sensation yet psychologists do know that there are no ideas 
in the mind prior to sensation and that mental activity 
is at a minimum in connection with the early sensational 
experiences of the child. 

"The place of sensihi li t ies in human psychology is 
fundamental. They go far to mold the eventual nature that 
on the basis of original endowment matures through .cultiva- 
tion. Sensibilities support reason jscnsibil i ties combine to 
form tact and judgment ; snesibi lities stimulate the imagina- 
tion, direct association and determine the stream of perception." 
"Memory , imaginati on and reasoning are limited in the qualities 
that they make use of to the bare materials of sense. They 
m&y recombine themjthey may make use of the sense materials 
in new '.ays, but ther can add no new qual it ies ^ New things 
may be compounded out of these qualities but the number of 

1. Pjllsbur: ...'.B. -- Fundamental 3 of Psychology chap. 4 p. 98 
: BcMillan Go. 1920 

2«> Jastrow, Josephs- Character and Temperament chap. 2 p. 103 
D.^ppleton & Go. Il.Y.fif.ondon 1915 

fl. Pill sbury .W.B. -- Fundament air; of Psychology chap. 4 p. 99 
Haellillan Go. N.Y. 1920 


qualities is ^ixeri "by these elementary sensations,, 

"That the organism pay be put in the post delicate 
and complete accord with the world in which it is nlaced 
it must he capable of responding to the various objects 
found thereir. To this en * we find the sense organs so 
devised that they may give information about the most widely 
differing kinds of physical existence . Each form of sensation 
which we possess is apparently connected with the activity 
of a specially constituted receiving apparatus. In some 
cases this apparatus is extremely complexes in the eye, 
for e-ample;in other instances it is very simple 1 Again, 
Yerkes defines sensation as "a sir:p].e fact of consciousness 

which is referred to some definite bodily organ-- its sense 


organ." So we may conclude that sensation as a part of 
consciousness has a physiological basis. 

Consciousness recognizes sensory stimulation to be 
a sensation and this sensation becomes inter-woven with the 
complex stream of consciousness which is the mental life of 
the individual. But all of consciousness cannot be analyzed 
together so it is obvious that various aspects need be con- 
sidered separately. It is necessary therefore, to analyze 
sensation, as a phase of the unit of consciousness, into its 
elementary qualities and to attempt to discover the relations 

1. £ngell,J.R. — Psychology "chap. 5 B.J10 

Henry Holt & Co. N.Y. 1908 

2. Yerkes,R.K. — Introductions to Psycholog y chao.9 p. 93 

Henry Holt °c Co. 1911 



of these qualities one to another. The more important of 
the physiological factors should he considered. 

This physiological "basis is home out "by the effect 
that we" observe stimuli to have upon the organism of the 
individual. Every group of sensations comes to us by way of 
a definite specially developed bodily organ. Sense-impressions 
when produced by external stimuli upon the peripheral or- 
ganism are conveyed along the afferent nerves to sensory 
centers closely connected with corresponding motor centers 
in the cerebral cortex of the brain. Sensory stimulation 
is the first step that we discover in the activity of the 
sensory motor circuit which represents the unit of action 
in the nervous system. 

There is a wide range of disagreement concerning the 
elements or attributes of sensations, for in the first place, 
it is difficult to distinguish a pure sensation freed from 
all other mental processes, and in the second place ob- 
servation of processes has not been uniform. Intensive 
study of the elements of sensation may disclose many views 
that have not been accounted for by the more general ob- 
server. Titchener .however , suggests four very definite 
attributes of sensati on ;-( 1 ) aual ity, ( 2 ) intensity, ( 3 ) clear- 
ness and (4)duration. "Quality is, so to say,an individual 
attribute whicn distinguishes every elementary process from 
ever^< other • It is accordingly, the attribute hich gives 
a sensation its special and distinctive name:- cold, blue 


warm etc. Intensity is the attribute to which we refer 
when we say that a given sensation is brighter or duller, 
louder or fainter, heavier or lighter, stronger or weaker 
than another sensation ... .Clearness is the attribute which 
gives a sensation its particular place in consciousness; 
the clearer sensat : on is dom'nant , independent , outstanding; 
the less clear sensation is subordinate , undistinguished in 
the background of consc iousness ... .Jurati on is a temporal 

attribute hi oh makes the course of a sensation in time 

its rise, poise ana fall as process in consciousness 

characteristically different from any other sensation." * 

Pooularly there are only five kinas or classes of 
sensat ion 9 naraely, the special senses of sight .hearing, touch , 
taste ana smell; but in reality there are many more. The 
oopul r conception originated from the fact that the average 
person is familiar with only five kinas of receptive organs. 
In general .Professor kitchener ana Professor Yerkes agree as 
to the basis for tne classification of sensation. "There 
are three important ways of arranging or classifying sensations. 
They -re ( 1 ) according to their degree of psychological 
1 ikeness, ( 2)acoording to the bodily organsf sense organs) 
•t o which they are referred, and (3) according to the kind of 
stimulus which gives rise to them." 2 The first ana third are 

1. Titchener ,E.B. — A Text- B ook of Psycholo gy chap. p. 97 

Maciuillan Go. N.Y. 1917 

t . Yerkes ,R ..... »- Introdu ction to Psychology chap. 9 p. 53 
Henry Holt & Go. K.Y. 1911 


of the most value psychologically , while the second is sig- 
nificant physiologically. "We may classify sensations in 
terms of their introspective re-semblances. We may also, with 
change of standpoint , classify tnem by reference to the body 
since observation has shown that every group of sensations 
comes to us by way of a definite , specially developed bodily 
organ. .. .Finally we may classify sensations by reference to 
the stimuli which arouse them." Besides the parallel , more 
specific classif ,cat ion wh^ch these two psychologists give 
to sensations, in the large they also agree that sensations 
fall into two principle groups. The first group includes those 
sensations which are stimulated externally--the stimuli ori- 
ginate outside the body. This would include the visual, 
auuitory, olfactory t gustatory,ana cutaneous sensation. The 
stimuli of the second group are internal , originating inside 
the body. This group includes the muscular , tendinous and 
articular sensations. 

Professor Yerces has estimated that the average human 
"being experiences at least fifty thousand different sensations. 
The child until birth has experienced none of these , therefore , 
the important place of sensation can be readily judged. It is 
the first experience the child lias and because of its priority, 
forms the basis for all other mental processes. No part of 
an individual life may be studied psychologically without 
a fcno ledge of the relation and the importance of sense- impres- 
sions to the mind. 

* Titohener ,E.B. Text-Book of Psychology 
MacMillan Go. H.Y, 1917 

p . 55-56 



Sensations furnish the material or the roots for 
sense-perceo t i ons . This leads to the next step in mental 
development. It does not indicate that immediately follow- 
ing the acquirement of sense experiences a definite time is 
set aside for 'he development of sense perceptions to the 
exclusion of all other development. It merely indicates that 
sense-perception is one element in the stream of consci ousness 
that cannot be develooed apart from sensation. Perception is 
a selected group of sensation whieh has/, meaning. The process 
of perception is ''that act of mind by wi ich real external 
things become knov;n through the senses." No sensation in 
itself has meaning.for it merely functions in its charac- 
teristic way, intensively f clearly , bearing certain nualities 
and continuing over varying periods of time. But all percep- 
tions have meaning. From the thousands of sensations the 
child gradually begins to form conclusions. Sensations from 
m-iny different stimuli are all coming into the brain simul- 
taneously , oerhaps , ana these gradually take on different 
groupings and forms until the result in consciousness is that 
of meaning. So the child by e-coer 'menting and experiencing 
gradually forms conscious ideas concerning the various parts 
of his environ:: ei t . 

In the child's attemot to understand the world and to 
prepare for action in the world we find more than sensations 
and their resulting sense-perceptions. Closely connected with 

* Tracy .Frederick — Psychology of Childhood chap.i; p. 44 

D.C. Heath & Co. Boston 1909 (Seventh edition Revised 

& enlarged) 


these are additi 3nal elements which weave in and out through 
the whole stream of consciousness. These elements may he 
isolated only for the convenience of analysis. They are 
memory , imaginati on and reasoning. These aspects of conscious- 
ness may be grouped in close relation, yet they may he ana- 
lyzed independently. The three elements bear very much the 
sane relation to simple imagery that sense-percept 1 m bears 
to sensation. This relation obviously establishes at lc-^st one 
ooint in common. "Each of the t-hree may be an lyzed into 
simple sensational or imaginal qualities, and each follows 
the laws of association, ^ach deals with things, is concrete, 
as opposed to sensations and images which are pure abstrac- 
tions..., The thougnt orocesses differ from perception in the 
time and place to thich the event is referred. In perception 
it is actually present* 5 * to the senses at the moment; in the 
three processes under discussion it is regarded as past or 
future or as having* real existence In some distant place** 

Mors specifically, an analysis o^ each element will 
clarify our conception of consciousness as a whole. Every hour 
the individual is calling upon his memory to supply him 
with some fact or detail of his past. "All the conscious 
processes of aa individual enter as factors into the deter- 
mination of his suhsenuent conscious activities." 2 The indi- 
vidual is constantly having what he terms new and olc experi- 
ences. Just hat is the differentiation? Professor Yerlces 

1. Pillsbury. V.B. -- Ass en t ials of Psychology chap. 8 p. £04 

i.if.nLMll n Co, I .Y. 19^1 (Revised Edition) 

2. '.ngell,J.R. — Psychology chap. 8 p. 197 

Henry Holt & Co. N.Y. 1906 (Fourth Revised Edition) 




clarifies this problem. "The first time an elementary mental 
process or a psychic complex enters consciousness it is new 
to that consciousness ;the next time it enters it is old. 
Practically v.<e distinguish the new from the old "by saying 
t&at certain experiences are novel and unfamiliar to us 
while otners are , ; ere repetitions of hat is familiar.... 
Evidently the mere fact of repetition or reappearance in 
consciousness does not constitute an experience a remembered 
experience. It must be recognizee as old, it must be ac- 
companied by a feeling of familiarity." 

Hnving distinguished between new and old experiences 
we may auote three definit ; ons of memory which include old 
experiences. "In memory our consciousness not only re-presents 
old experiences to us, but we are aware of the ideas thus 
brougnt to us *s actually standing for items of our previous 
states of consciousness." "Memory is a reinstatement of an 
old experience , -vith the knowledge that it is old." "IJemory 
pro jer is the knowledge of an event or fact of which, meantime 
we have not been thinking, with the additional consciousness 
that we have thought or experienced it before." The three 
definitions quoted include veritably the same ideas Although 
the third definition may raise a question in our minds con- 

1. Yer kes ,R ,M« --Intr oa uct 1 on to Psychology chap. 16 op. 192-2 

Henry Holt & Co. l.Y. 1911 

2. Angell. J.R. -- Psychology chup.9 p. 222 

Henry Holt & Go. N.Y. 1908 (Fourth Revised Edition^ 

3. Piilsbury, . .B.-- Essem ials of Psych o log y chap. 8 p.20o 

M«cMillan Co. N.Y. 19?I (Revised Edition) 

4. Angell,J.R. — Psychology chap. 9 p. 223 

Henry Holt & Co. N.Y. 1908 (Fourth Revised Edition) 


cerning the whereaoouts of the once-known facts .hile they 
are out of the mind of Vne individual. ..e know that the 
mental orocess of memory does not remain constant on one 
subject or any number of subjects in the sense that the 
subjects are always present. Obviously then, we can agree 
with Dr.Betts in his significant statement ;" It is not the 
remembered fact which is retained but the power to reproduce 
the fact hen we r ecu ire it." 

Memory, like all other mentc;l processes , maintains 
a physiological relationship worthy of consideration. If 
we are to remember a given incident it is reasonable to 
suppose that the same physiological process must take place 
in the memory of the incident that was orescnt at its first 
appearance . in consciousness. It is the mental process 
which accompanies this reappearance or reoeated activity 
that we term memory. A statement concerning the physical 
activity may oe set up para -lei to the definitions of mem- 
ory that have oeen Quoted, for the mental process of memory 
and the physiological activity definitely correlate. "As 
memory is the approximate repetition of once-experienced 
mental states or facts, together with the recognition of 
their belonging to our oast;so it is accomplished by an 
approximate repetition of the once-performed neural processes 
in the cortex which originally accompanied these states 

* Betts, George Heruert-- The Mind ana Its Saucation chap. 11 p. 161 
D.Appleton Go. TfTTl 1916 THevised Edition! 


or facts." ftorsv.orthy and hit ley give the whole crux of 
the problem of the physiological oasis of memory in the 
following nuotati on ; "Memory refers to the fact that a 
situation tends to evoke the mental response with •.'•hich 
it has been connected previously. The original roots of this 
tendency are to be fou d in the moaif iabil ity of the synap- 
ses in the cortex. A connection once made leaves its mark 
on the synapses involved, The synapses concerned in memory, 
then. are those of secondary connections ... .Good ana poor 
memories find their ultimate explanation in this plasticity 

of synapses ... .Memory as a physiological ou«lity of brain 


tissue , cannot be improved." 

Betts and fillsbury agree entirely upon the four 
factors or processes involved in ^emory. They name them 
as (l)learning or reg Lstrat i on, ( 2 )retent ion, ( 3 )recall 
ana ( 4)recognit ion ."Anyone of these would be valueless 
without the otners. Learning without retention is almost 
a uontraaict i on in terms. Retention without recall is enup-lly 
futile. Retention, in fact, can be demonstrated only through 
recoil. The knowledge stored in your brain at this moment 
gives no sign of its presence. You can be aware of T "hat 
you know. only be recalling it. Finally, if ever, ts when re- 
called were not recognized, recall would be valueless, if, 
when n idea ca&e to mind you could not saj whether it 
was derived from a dream or a real exoerience , it would 

1. 3etts, George Herbert — The Mind and It s Education chap. 11 p. 16^ 
D.Appleton Co. . . 1916 (Revised Edition) 

2. iiorsworthy and .hitley— Psychology of Uhiiucood .hap. 8 p. 131 
I4an] .llan Co. K .Y. 1924 

be confusing." x 

The first of the four factors which Pillsbury calls 
learning ana Betts calls registration, is merely a process 
of forming associations , whether the learning be rote or 
observational. To explain this process of learning we conclude 
that it is necessary to oroduce in the appropriate neurones 
the activities ,v.hioh being repeated later cause the fact to 
he recalled. In terms of the nervous system it is merely 
a process of producing certain changes in the synapses. To 
insure the expected recall learning necessarily must be 
thorough ; the impression upon the synapse must be complete 
in order that a thorough change may he affected. "This change 
depends entirely upon the number of repetitions,upon the age 
of the individual ,u jon the time that elapses before one repe- 
tition is sucoeede^by another, and by the rhythm and r»te of 
repetit i ons." ? - 

Retenti on, the second process involved in memory , depends 
upon the persistence of the impression when learning takes 
place. After learning, the degree of retention may be affected 
by mental activity of any sort. If after learning a 
of s;yllaules , one turns at once to learning something else 
or to any other form of mental -/ork: retention is sometimes 
less complete than if one rests for a period of time. This 
is true even in the cases a thing is thoroughly learned 
having made the necessary changes in the synapses. The fact 

1. Pillsbury ff.B. -- Es s entials of Psychology chap. 8 p. 205 
'Chilian Co. N.T. (?,eviseu Edition) 

?. . Ihid chap. 8 0.^04 



that retention is often affected when other work: immediately 
follows tne learning or registration of facts may "be explained 
psychologically, it : s known to be true that after the learn- 
ing process is thought to be completed there seems to be 
a continuing activity of the nervous system that is necessary 
to the best retention. Any new work that is immediately 
undertaken would tend to inhibit this continued activity. The 
following statement concerning learning and retention is 
veri significant. "All learning and retention are dependent 
upon the formation arid persistence of associations. Learning 
«nd retention are never of ideas or things in isolation, 
but always of ideas and things in connection. .. .The laws 
of r eoall , too , «re primarily the laws of association. Just 
s s every ting ti&t is learned must be learned in connection 
with something else, so anything that is recalled must be 
recaiied because of the rearousal of an associate. This 
can be brought aoout only through the presence of some cue, 
some idea associated with the fact essential at the moment, 
une c n nnot recall an idea without the associated idea or 
sensation. Is is impossible to get back the fact in any other 
"jay th«n through the aooropriate suggestion. This sugges- 
tion may be furnished by the preceding ide« or it m«y come 
through sensation." Certain and accurate recall depends 
primarily upon the methods of learning; it is subject only 

* iPillsbury, ,7 .B . — Essentials of Psychology chap. 8 pp. 217-8 
MacMillan Go. tt.Y. 1921 (Revised Edition) 



in part to control at the moment of recall. Since recall 
depends upon association when learning, the more associations 
set up between the fact to be remembered and related facts 
already in the . .ind, the better the recall. Everting that is 
giTen over to the memory for its keeping should be linked as 
closely as possible to material of the same sort. We should 
not expect our memories to retain and reproduce isolated, 
unrelated facts. 

Recognition, the last of the orocesses involved in 
memory has been aefined as an awareness of the time and place 
of the origin of the memory image. Frequently one sees an 
object and is uncertain,at first, here he h^as seen it before 
or whal it is. Gradually other ideas group about it. Soon 
familiarity is seen in v hat at first seemed to be an entirely 
new object and at last complete recognition takes place. 
This is vitally important for ithout complete identification 
memory would not be reliable. 

Again, recalling the conception that all the conscious 
processes of an individual enter as factors into the determi- 
nation of his suosequent conscious act ivi ties, we must recog- 
nize imagination as an aspect of the stream of consciousness 
worthy Of analysis. It bears a close relationship to memory. 
In its ordinary use it may suggest the unreal or the fanciful 
bec«use of the inaccurate use of the term. There is however, 
» very definite distinction between the two terms. ''Imagination 
in the psycnologist ' s meaning, might be called the conscious- 
ness of objects not present to sense... All imagination is 



based in one way or another upon previous perceptual acti- 
vities, and conseauently the psychical material which we meet 
in imagination is all of a piece with the material which 
perception orings to us, and altogetner like it, save that in 
imagination the faorlc is often much faded ana sometimes much 
cat ap ana pieced. So far as we approximate pure sensations 
in seiise experience , so far ao we have images re-instating 
approximately pur a dualities as aistinct from objects." 
Nothing: can enter imagination the elements of which have 
not been in our past experience and then have been conserved 
in the form of images. This statement aoes not mean that 
imagination is simply the retiring of a sense experience and 
nothing more creative but it aoes tend to emphasize, and rightly 
80, the fact that even in creative imagination the material 
has at least, in part, been in past experience. These fragments 
then may be built into wholes ,.hioh iway never have existed 
before, and which may then exist onlv as a creation of the 
mind. It would follow therefore that our imagination depends 
on two f actors , l 1 ) the materials available in the form of 
usable images may be recalled and (2)the constructive 
ability of the Individual,, or his power to ^roup these images 
into new wholes.txxe process .uiued by some purpose or 
ena . Consequently some inaividuals have much richer imagina- 
tions than others. Some are limited by a small stock of images 

Nor 8 worthy and . hitley — Psycho logy of Ch ildhood chap. 9 pp.149 
MaeMillan Go. N.Y. 1924 




because of a narrow experience and others may have had rich 
experiences but are limited in their ability to reconstruct 
their images to abtain new products. 

As with memory, a physiological basis may be estab- 
lished for imagination . ''The original basis of imagination 
is to be found in the wealth of fineness of organization of 
secondary connect i ons f although richness of the perceptual 
associations is necessary as a foundation. Free mental images 
depend on the development of percepts, and these in turn upon 
tne inter-action of the various sense departments with their 
i mediate association connections. The secondary connections 
allow for the recall of the percept in some of its associative 
setting from within, and this is reproductive imagination."* 

Universally imagination seems to be divided into two 
types namely, reproductive and productive (creative) imagina- 
tion. "Reproductive imagination consists in the representa- 
tion of percept i ons , or images, which have previously appeared 
in our consciousness. Thus, I may close my eyes and obtain a 
visual image of the desk at which I am writing. Such an image 
would illustrate .hat pschologists mean by reproductive 
imagery , inasmuch as my imagination would in this case simply 
repeat, or re-instate sons conscious experience which has 
previously been present in my mind. Evidently at this rate 
the great mass of the events which we are sole to remember 

* Korsworthy ana hit ley — Psychology of Ch ildhood chap. 9 pp.149 
M°cMillan Co. N • Y • 19^4 




would be recalled by means of reproductive imagination . Our 
ordinary memory processes would ue instances of reproductive 
i:nagin-:t ion, or , as it is sometimes called, re-presentation. " 

The second type of imagination called productive gives 
material that is very different from anything that we have 
seen before. "Productive imagination involves the appearance 
in consciousness of images which have never before entered 
the mind in their present form and order. Thus the visual 
image of an eight-legged dog misrht be called up although it 
is reasonably certain that ost of us have never seen such an 
Animal nor even a picture of it. Such an ima-re would illus- 
trate, in a rough way, what is meant by productive, or constructive 
imagination." Creative iraaginat ion is always seen in the 
van of progress, for all thinking ana all invention depend 
uoon productive imaginations. 

Reasoning, another element of the stream of consciousness, 
appears not as a result of the otner elements of the otream 
but rather as an acc ompan iment of these aspeets, It is true, 
in a sense, that these aspects do find their culmination 
in the process of reasoning but it is not a totally mew form 
of psychic activity which takes precedence over orior activi- 
ties. The activities come to their fullest realization 
in the process of reasoning even though this activity in a 
crude form has always been present in the consciousness of the 
£ individual. Angell and iMllsbury seem to a?ree rather "ell 

upon a definition of reasoning in the terms exoressed by 

* AngeIi,J.R. -- Psycholog y chap. 8 p. ^03 

Henry Holt & Go. N.Y, 1908 (Fourth Revised Edition) 



both as "purposive thinking". 

Before proceeding further it may be necessary to make 
a statement to show something of the relationship of reason- 
ing to the mental process of thinking. Observation and ex- 
perience seemingly have proved to psychologists that man 
possesses the unioue power of thinking of will oh he alone is 
capable. The process is more or less dependent upon all of 
the other mental processes ana can oe considered separately 
only for the sake of analysis. It involves the f ul L eauipment 
of the human jeing. "Thinking is a complex: operation involving- 
practically all the types of mental states and processes. As 
it is the capstone of man's power, both intellectual and moral, 
any eakness of the simpler parts is a structural defect. In- 
complete or inaccurate percept ion, defective memory, poor 
habits of attent i on, lack of development of the more effective 
tyoes of imagery , --all these have their effect on thinking, 
making it more difficult and causing inaccuracies." 

Norsworthy ana whitley point out the original busis 
of the power to think. They declare that thinking is as de- 
pendent on structure as seeing is dependent on the presence 
of an eye ar;d its nerves although the structures are more 
complex arid numerous than are those of the eye. "Given a ner- 
vous system which operates in small parts ? ; nd forms numerous 

* . ttorsv orin; and <hitley-- -Psycnology of Childhood 
:> exilian Co. K.Y. 19^4 

chap. 10 p. 161 


associations, then definite ideas as opoosea to vague 
sense-impressions , must appear. The individual responds to 
parts of situations, to elements ana relat i onships,he eoraes 
to feel abstract ions , to make judgments ana to express such 
feelings. Thinking then, takes place as a matter of course." 

To determine just what the individual experiences 
when he thinks is a problem in the study of the whole stream 
of consciousness and cannot be entered upon here. It is ex- 
ceedingly difficult to make the determination by the method 
of observation but it is a study that is receiving a great 
deal of attention at the present time and one which will 
prove ver^ fruitful for the field of psychology, riere I shall 
content myself wit.i a fe v of the aspects or characteristics 
of thinking which have already been suggested in hat has 
been said concerning reasoning and all it implies. I have 
mentioned that reasoning is purposive thinking, but pushing 
the analysis further it seems that if reasoning involves 
a solution of problems, it must be more than thinking to.ard 
a definite end. To solve a problem the reasons given must be 
true and accurate anu ■hen auestioned must be readily de- 
feuded . 

fillsbury enumerates some of the characteristics of 
reasoning;-"we may say it is a mental operation that (l)is 
directed to the solution of problem, is purposive , not random; 

Eorsworthy and Whitley — Psychology of Childhood chap. 10 p. 170 
M«cj)Iillan Co. I'.Y. 1924 




(2) the results of the thinking must oe a new solution that 
is accepted as true; (3) the action to which the thinking 
leads must also be new and Immediately adenu«te ; ( 4) the solu- 
tion may be warranted in advance of test, by reference to 
general principles or earlier experiences ; ( 5 ) and the solu- 
tion itself may be general, i .e appli cable to many situations, 
or it may be particular 1 

Since reason is ourposive there ts no occassion for 
it .'.hen the thoughts or actions of the individual are pro- 
gressing smoothly; but when an obstacle appears reasoning 
is a necessity. "Three stages in the reasoning operation 
m«y be aist inguished. (l)The obstacle must be understood 
and appreciated; (2) some plan that will remove the obstacle 
must be developed ; and (o)the plan that suggests itself 
must be proved, must be just if ied 2 

So immediately reason finds itself broken up into its 

1. Pillsoury, i .B . — Essentials of Psychology chap. 9 p. 244 

MaeMillan Go. I.'.Y. (Revised Edition) of .also #3 

2. PillSbury, ..^.-- Essentials of Psychology chap. 9 p. 254 

tiaoiaillan Co. i, (Revised Edition) 

3. G«tes,.A.I. Psychology for Si udents of Education chap. 14 

MaoMillan Go. 1925 p. 326 

c.f. also #1 

"The distinguishing characteristics of reasoning 
emorace (1) an attentive, active analysis of the problem- 
situation by means of observation — not only viausl obser- 
vation, exploration and analysis, but similar study through 

otner senses such as hearing, and (2) a conscious recall 

of past experiences, the utilization of ideas, general and 
partivular, which recur during the study. "3 


various parts, .hen a problem comes up for solution our 
thought upon it will bring to mind a number of concepts 
of our former experiences which we put together in the 
form of a judgment . it results in the ordering or or- 
ganizing of our menial material in relation to the problem 
at hand. In this light judgment does not create anything 
wholly new but rather combines the old to fit the new or 
the present situation. 

It might be profitable to test the characteristics 
and stages of reasoning and judgment that have been n»med . 
-In Application of th^se stages to some simple situation 
from human experience where reason or judgment is employed 
may illustrate the process. 

I j friend ana I have a limited amount of time in 
which to get lunch. He direct our steps toward a certain 
cafeteria which is familiar to both of us. Ife have a defi- 
nite purpose. On stepping out of the elevator we discover 
a crowd of people which we Know will hinder us from getting 
our luncn promptly so we conceive it to be an obstacle. We 
begin to call up concepts of former experiences:- there is 
a Long line, it is noon and the . orking people are hurrying 
to get lunch, many have not been served, many are only starting 
to eat; --all of these concepts connect themselves together 
in our minds and we form the judgment that e cannot remain. 

e begin seeking a solution. I know of another eating place 
in close proximity and have heard that it is verj good. I 




present the prooosition as a solution to our immediate problem 
which I accept as true and consider adeauate under the cir- 
cumstances, iviy friend objects. Her recall in memory tells her 
that the place 1 suggest is at some distance. But I attempt to 
prove to her that my statement is true by asking her to think 
of it in relation to aa otner building. She relates the two, 
accepts my proof and then accepts the solution. Thus reasoning 
is purposive thinking or the mental process experienced when 
« solution is presented for the solving of a seeming diffi- 
culty or a thwartea purpose. 

Beyond sensati on , memory , imaginati on and reasoning, yet 
included in ;..ental development lies emotion. It becomes a 
mighty force in tne lives of sor:.e individuals. "Emotions are 
vividly consci ous , and yet diffuse and indefinite in comparison 
with most sensati ons, percepts and ideas. They have a sub- 
jective reference ; they are felt as if in us, whereas colors 
and sounds are felt as if out si a e the oody." 1 "The emotions 
stand as mental states , intermediate between feeling and in- 
stincts and the higher intellectual operations. From one 
point of view they are very intense and diffused feelings 
aroused oy complicated situations Emotions too are re- 
lated to movements ." 2 "Notice that emotion as a psychological 
term, refers to the state of consciousness; that is to trie 
complex of sensations and not to the bodily activities them- 

1. Gates, A. I. -- Psychology for Students of Eauo-qti ->n chap. 5 p. 104 
MacMillan Co. U.Y. 1925 

8 . Pillsbury , W. B • — Essentials of Psychology chap .12 p . 304 

MacMillan Co. 1J.Y. 1981 (Revised v uition) 



selves." ^ But it is significant that the oodily a c^ompaniments 
of -i notions are not purposive — nothing is executed by these 
aotions as is the case with voluntary actions or actions 
% resulting from the will. 

Psychologically there comes a break in consciousness 
and this is reflected in tha organic reaction. Consciousness 
res^onas to the stimuli and these responses must drain off 
through the motor channels, if the situation is not highly 
emotional the usual haoits of motor response will take place 
unaer conscious control out if the stimulation is highly 
emotional consciousness loses its power to guiae motor 
activity anu the aoauired voluntary movements are cut off 
and the nervous currents pass into the involuntary pathways. 

"These motor activities occur in an essentially 
reflex way i.., ed.ately upon the perception of the emotional 
stimulus. These muscular reactions xiecessarily initiate at 
once afferent neural curreits, nich set up sensory ana effec- 
tive disturbances that are promptly reported into conscious- 
ness. The L»nge-James view insists that all accurate intro- 
spective observation of experiences reveals the emotion of 
fear as a conscious state in hich these motor reactions are 
represented as essential and integral parts. 

In each one of the emotions the organic reverberation 

1. Gat 68, A. I. — Pg :>choIog.y for Students of Education chap. 8 p. 158 
Mn civilian Co. h.Y. 1925 . 

- . ine-ell, J.R.-- Psychology cnap . 18 p. 371 

Henr; holt & Co. I . Y. 1908 (Fourth Revised Edition) 

39 . 

which is produced by the emotional stimulus enters into 
consciousness to give it characteristic emotional coloring 
and to n.ark it off from other modes of activity. In anger 
' e ordinarily fin a the breathing disturbed , the circulation 
irregular md o&amy of the voluntary muscles tense ana rigid... 
Emotions are therefore , extremely complex processes, so far, 
at ic;ast,as regards the organic activity which conditions 
them. In emotions we are not only conscious of the emotional 
object; m% re also over-whelmed by a mass of sensational 
and effective elements brought abqut by the intra- organic 
activities of our own musculature. 

Numerous attempts have been made to classify the emotions 
It is an exceed ingly difficult task: oecause the bases of 
e.'.otions are so varied and inuist Inguisha ole . It has oeen 
suggested that a division be made on trie basis of instincts 
ana bodily responses. This proves to oe unsatisfactory for 
the instincts are very oftei. variaule oecause of the ends 
they subserve. The bodily responses are often identical for 
different instincts. Another difficulty in the classifica- 
tion of amotions is found in the fact that emotional response 
to the same situation varies greatly with the intellectual 
attitude toward it ana this frequently changes even though 
the situation is constant. 

A reasonable classification might be as follows, 
(l)those emotions that are ourely instinctive responses 
and come without preli.min«ry consciousness and may be con- 




trary to aesire or opposed to all rational expectations, and 
(?) those emotions that arise only after interoretat ion and 
are influenced by contemplation as much as by stimulus. This 
is similar to -Angell's class 1 fication--"emotions maybe divid- 
ed into primary , which do not involve any preceding emotional 
experiences upon hioh they depend ;and secondary, or derived, 
which qo thus Implicate some such antecedent experience . 

Anger anu fear illustrate the first group: certain forms of 


remorse and pity illustrate the second." Numerous immediate 
purely instinctive emotions coming from sight or contact with 
the stimulus such as seeing the rattle snake approach, would 
typify the primary emotions. On the other hand the fear may 
be delayed and dependent on the reflection upon the stimulus 
ratner than upon the immediate contact with the stimulus. 
One mignt be in a complicated traffic situation and remain 
perfectly calm throughout but after the complication is re- 
moved and one has driven out on the country road and reflects 
upon the danger, one st ' rred e not ionally . Then one 
bee-ins to gro ; cold and shiver and to experience all of the 
symptoms of fear in the way of bodily responses. 

The emotional phase of the mental development of an 
individual's life is of tremendous importance because of the 
very nature of emotion. There is one common peculiarity 

* Angell, J.n. Psycholog y chap. 18 p. 374 

Henry Holt & Co. 1 c j08 (Fourth Revised Edition) 


Id ail emot ions--grief , auger , fear , embarrassment and pity, 
all alike. In every caae eonseiousnesfl is thrown backward 
ana inward upon itself instead of progressing in ell-ordered 
% control. This may last only for a flash and then may be brought 

under control or it may continue uncontrolled, ~t is e»sy 
for any Individual to allow the emotion to continue in ascend- 
ency, sway his ".hole being nd completely paralyze the mental 
activity. This is the serious thing about on controlled 
emotions. To secure directed and efficient action under the 
intensity of unusual situations there is demand for an ad- 
justment of consciousness . Consci ousnes^inay become unbalanced 
or uisturbed at the presence of these strange phenomena and 
in need of control ana balance. "Control of emotion or of emo- 
tional expression is largely in terms of the attitude one 
takes toward the stimulus or sensation." It is here that we 
finu the opportunity for the education of the emotions. 

It has been suggested that a person is an educated 
person or a moral person in direct proportion to his capacity 
of exerting his -..ill. "in the ill c have the culmination 
of al 1 the activities of control. But it must have been observed 
that we have not four a any specific mental element or event 
to 7»hich we could give the name will. The term will is simply 
a convenient appellation for the whole range of mental life 


viewd from the standpoint of its activity and control over 


* Pillsbury ,W .B. — Essentials of -csycnology chap. 12 p. 31b 
Mackillan Co, H.Y. 1921 (Revised Edition) 



movement. The whole mind active --this is the will,,,. 
There is no specific mental element to be called will, be- 
cause all states of consciousness are in their entirety the 
Will** 1 "In so far as the psychic energy of the mind is 
initiated and directed by the idea of a purpose to be 
realized or of an end to be achieved, we will have will in 
the stricter sense of the term."^ A well-developed will consists 
in the ability voluntarily io direct one's attention effective- 
ly una for unlimited periods in definite directions. 

One of the ,!:Ost important problems connected with the 
will is that of the control of action. Action seems to be the 
way the will h^s of expressing itself. Some say the will comes 
from desires of certain ends and from a knowledge of the 
movement necessary to attain that end. Others say it comes 
from a struggle between two contrary acts and even others 
maintain it comes out of experience little by little, from 
involuntary movements which eventually become voluntary. 
Angell gives some very definite features of the voluntary 
acts ; --"Yiftien we direct our attention to the immediate dis- 
cernible features of voluntary acts in adult life, we note 
that such acts always involve foresight of some end, that this 
end is aesired or at least consented to, and tiiat certain 
muscular movements then occur whicn are meant to attain the 
end. .e observe further that on some occasions the mere 

1. Angell, J .R. — P sy c nolog y chap. lC ,2 pp. 436-7 

Henry Holt & Go. ] ,Y. 1906 (Fourth Revised Edition) 

2. Tracy , G .F . — Psychology of Childhood chap.b" p. 79 

M«cMillan Go. 1921 Ij.Y. 



presence of a percept or an idea carries with it instantly 
ana without deliberation the execution of movement f whereas 
on other occasions arrival at the stage of mental consent 
requires long trains of reflective thought, and movements 
expressive of the decision which may he postponed indefi- 

.Actions are impulsive , reflex or voluntary in nature. 
The voluntary -cts are those that concern us here. The evo- 
lution of voluntary acts is comparatively simple. The child 
acauires the possibility of moving by random movements that 
£ive a cert .in result, md the connection between the idea of 
the movement ana. the movement itself is established by 
frecuent repetition. At all 1 ,/ter times the movement may be 
mad* whenever the iaea comes to consciousness. The more 
complex problems of action are really problems in the control 
of iaeas. We usually think: of exerting our wills in the 
case of two alternative courses of action. In making this 
choice the result of each course of action is determined; 
and if all the active mind can be convinced to the wisdom 
of one procedure over the other that course will be pursued. 

ill then, finds itself as choice ana all of the contributing 
forces of the individual's heredity and endowment will help 
determine these choices. 

The formation of good habits will strengthen the will. 
All of life is dependent upon habit, all of progress is condi- 

Pixlsbury ,W.B . — Essential o of Psycholog y chap, lo p. 346 
MaclViil an Go. N.Y. 1921 ( Revised Edition) 



tioned by it. Lying at the root of all civilization 
it is the bond that makes society stable, the element that 
gives character to the individual life, for character 
after all, must be defined in terms of one's haoitual 
modes of response. d«bit is often called plasticity 
which means the power of the neurones to be sensitive to 
what happens to them and the power to be permanently 
changed . 







1. Various stages maj be approximately characterized 

Specific changes during adolescence 
d. Problems of leadership suprsrested by these changes 

4b . 

The foregoing study has limited itself to the var- 
i jus aspects of the stream of consciousness with references 
which would characterize no jarticular age. Occasionally 
reference was made to the very young child experiencing 
sensations, revealing instincts et cetera, but in general, 
what his been said regarding these various phases of con- 
sciousness was simply in discussion of those aspects per 
se, not denoting specifically the age to which the subject 
uf-der discussion referred. And rightly so, for no psychologist 
has been able to say that sensation begins at birth to con- 
tinue alone until a specific age at which point the child 
experiences sensf percept ion, ana so on through all the 
various experiences. This is, in no respect, a valid concep- 
tion for these various conscious elements are all inter- 
woven--one is dependent upon the otner for its very exis- 
tence . If memory could literally be removed from the 
mental st^-te of an individual certain forms of imagi- 
nation -would be eliminated. It sensation were removed 
sense-perception coi^ld no longer continue. And so it is 
through all of consciousness. It is the whole that is 
of primary interest ratner than any specific part. The 
part only becomes important as it is seen in relation to 
all of the other mental states. 


To a certain extent, characterization of various 
stages may be mads. In childhood the whole state of con- 
sciousness is developed in a certain way, that is to say, 
there are fairly definite features that f ss a rule , pred orai- 
nate during a certain period of the individual's life. 
Even in this characterization no exact age boundaries may 
be set, for individuals ao not develop uniformly. Only ap- 
proximate ideas may be suggested for the growth of the 
various menial states which, tafcen as a whole, will prouuce 
an individual bearing certain characteristics at various 
stages of his development. .Any division into stages , th ere- 
fore,oecomes more or less arbitrary and varies with dif- 
ferent authors. 

The period known as early childhood begins at birth 
ana continues until the representative poers such as memory 
and imagination come into effective control of the material 
hlch the s ense^proviue . The effective state in controlling 
the senses is present very early but not to any mentionable 
degree. It is not for some years that the po er to re-present 
these sense experiences in aemory and imagination begins 
to be exercised with any large measure of def initeness and 
volitional control. The sensation experiences in this stance 
of childhood are very abundant but they cannot oe interpreted 
b; the child. He lacks the comparative experience ana his 
associations are weak although they ^re beginning to form. 
The child is not aole to associate one idea with another 




realizing that the one causes the other. He has not been 
able to for... any judgments, rational discrimination, nor 
effective conceptions. "As the young child is incapable of 
penetrating far beneath the surface of things, of under- 
standing necessary connect ion, of comprehending the causes 
from which a given effect arises or the effects to which a 
given cause may lead, it follows that his feelings are direct, 
sensuous , superfic ially excited." The behavior of the very 
young child is determined chiefly by native instincts, by 
response to suggestions that come from his environment , by 
imitation and oy needs of the organism. The majority of the 
mental processes that take place are of the sensor i-mot or 
type hich the child is not able to correlate or interpret. 
He may have a few ideas at this time but they are not effec- 
tive and do not control his other experiences. 

The period known as boyhood or girlhood comes into 
being when the representative faculties begin to control 
life. When the child is aole to recall sense experiences 
and functions of the memory and imagination come into active 
operation this second period begins. The general development 
is not so much in Quantity durine: this period as it is in 
ouality. The physical forces and powers become consolidated 
and help to add richness of quality to the --hole individual. 
It is decidedly a period of sense and muscular activity. 

* Tracy, Frederick:-- x : sychology of Adolescence chap. 2 p. 12 

MacMillan Co. ff.Y. 1920 


Sensation continue to be present in abundance and they 
begin to take on some sort of interpretation as expressed 
through muscular activity. Concepts are still in the process 
of being formed but all impressions are becoming more com- 
pletely rounded into concepts than was the case in the pre- 
vious period. 

From this period the boy or ~irl passes into ado- 
lescence hioh means that period of life which extends from 
pubert, to fall physical maturity* Since the period of ico- 
lescence is the subject of particular interest in this 
thesis it is i eceasarj to consider some of the definite 
changes nfoich take place in the growth and uevelopment of 
consciousness during this part of the individual's life. 
We might there think more in terms of the adolescence of 
girls rather than of boys. There are general physical and 
mental characteristic changes /hioh are mentioned and 
noticed by the untrained mind or by the person with no 
technical experience. Her voice becomes fuller and her 
whole physique tends toward shapeliness, poise and power. 
Ment«lly she grasps deeper meanings , she sees more in the 
things presented to her view and she makes more profound 
interpretations of her experience. Her whole psychic life 
is accelerated ana her intellect reaches out for larger 
fields of wonnuest in the way of knowledge. Her feelings 
°nd emotions ^re exceedingly intense and are brought into a 
closer connection with her thought life. Her intellect, 


her emotions and her will become more and more unified 
and she comes into a conscious realization of such unity. 
Her emoti ^nal nature becomes endowed with a finer sensi- 
tiveness to the subtle shades of the beautiful ana the 
sublime. And the will seems to awaken to a new realization 
of its own powers and to attempt things that in the previous 
stages of life never presented themselves as possibilities. 
"The young adolescent scarcely knows what to do with his 
powers of mind and body, with the surging tides of feeling, 
with the procession of images and ideas, and with the vigo- 
rous currents of muscular ana nervous force."* The forces 
«na tendencies that were formerly operative, if they con- 
tinue at all, seem to break: up and fit themselves into new 
forms, often recombining. This results many times in an almost 
new thing. Because of this strange belns- that she is forced 
to live with there is usually a stjSHLggle between the girl and 
herself and more often than not she finds herself in con- 
flict with her parents, her teachers, her friends, The girl 
understands neither her apparently changed surroundings 
nor her transformed self. Hence we find the contradictions and 
BUOmsliei tnat are so characteristic of the period. 

The disturbing impulses of the adolescent are gradu- 
ally resolved into character and the finer, higher and more 
hura«n traits begin their development and take on definite 

* Tracy .Frederick — Psychology of Adolescence chap. 4 p. 45 
MaoMlllan Go. N.Y. 19is0 


form. The "girl" largely accepted what she heard , wit boat 
too much criticism of it. It was fact to her. But at the 
beginning of adolescence she reveals and develops her 
power to reshape ana recombine the facts given her and the 
capacity to absorb and assimilate whatever chances to 
come into her intellectual, moral, religious, industrial , 
or social environment. She actually begins to think, to philoso- 
phize, to relate facts, to ouestion ana to criticize. Her 
philosophizing, criticizing, nuestioning and thinking may 
be more or less crude but she is yet a neophyte, a new 
being with a new experience which must be experimented 
with ana developed. .-er center of personality is mainly 
ohysical though her thought life is beina* born. 

This oeriod of early adolescence is a strange, unsettled, 
i . Dulsive, yeasty, tumultuous, unattractive out not unin- 
teresting time in tne development of the youth, a time that 
must be sympathet leal iy dealt with. 

Middle adolescence is the period of self-assertion; 
the individual develops self-reliance and the ego comes 
forcibly into its own. The oenter of her personality shifts 
from a physical to a spiritual basis, ana she becomes more 
keenly aware of her socia i relationsh ips ,her duties and 
the rights and wrongs of her acts. A great flood of energy 
comes rushing in upon her and she becomes suddenly conscious 
of Deing alive in a very new and significant sense and she 
responds more completely to her so cial environment than during 





any previous period. But such response requires complete 
adjustment. A girl in this period becomes fundamentally 
conscious of herself as being a part of the social group 
ana is conscious of her responsibility of contribution 
to the group. The factor that makes these adjustments so 
difficult is her consciousness of ana sensitiveness to 
that powerful thing she recognizes as puolic opinion or 
social approbation^- approval or disapproval. This tends to 
make her self consciousness severely intense and causes her 
endless misery. "In the second or later period of the teens 
the development of the po-ers of mind ana oody begins to 
settle into more regular lines ana to take on a somewhat more 
sober character. There is no falling off of vigor ana energy 
but that vigor and energy come under more effective control." 1 
There is still a lack of mental perspective , th ough the girl 
at this period has a sense of value. 

"The two earlier stages of adolescent development have 
brought to the individual the maximum growth in personality 
ana self-reliance. Late adolescence should manifest itself 
as a period fraught with great possibilities for co-operation 
and leadership ana individual resourcefulness leading to 
various forms of efficiency. This should characterize young 
manhood nd omunhood to the a?e of twenty- f our ."^ The 
physical being is brought to ' ts pe rf ecti on . The mind is 

1. Tracy .Frederick — Psychology of Adolescence chap .4 p. 45 

. • csMillan Co . I . Y. 1921 

2 . Prin?le,H. .-- ULolejscjejaoe i nd i :p School Prob lems chap. 3 

D.G. Heath *b Co. Boston, K.Y. & Chicago ' p. 38 


ready to undertake its deepest and most difficult thinking 
ana to see things as whole and in their true relations. 
During this period we discover the most originality , the 
most consummate strategy and the perfection of the social 
graces. "The rational mind should come into greater relative 
prominence in regard to the whole life of feeling, thought 
anu will." During this period the characteristics that 
have been laid in the foundation of the individual become 
more clearly defined. Individual haoits and ideals become 
firmly fixed . 

Decided changes take place in intellectual lines, 
especially in higher activities of abstract or specialized 
thought. The individual learns to think «bstractly by means 
of symbols; and images play a small part in intellectual 
activity. During this period comes the time for the study 
of abstract mathematics, philosophy .logic ana pure science . 
In many cases, as a result of this t the individual more or 
less revolts against her old beliefs and this revolution 
is likely to be accompanied by stronp- feeling. This oc- 
currenc e f reouently results in a complete change of character. 
It is rep-srded as a critical period in the development of 
the inaiviaual. The girl's emot ions, ideals, actions and 
habits ^re molded by her conceptions to a greater extent 

* Tracy .Frederick — Psycho lo gy of Adolescence chap. 4 p.4o 

11. -.n :o . . . Y. " 1921 


than ever before. It is the beginning of the supremacy of the 
intellect in directing emotions f habits and actions. "While 
holding fast to fundamental principles in belief and action 
there should remain a larp-e measure of freedom to expand, 
develop and become adapted to changing conditions, ideals , 
beliefs and practices that confront him as he grows older and 
society progresses." 

Pringle speaks of the whole of adolescence as a "great 

formative period the Renaissance of Life, the time when 

the elements of personality are being assembled and unified." 
"Wherever a process of life communicates an eagerness to 
him who lives it, there the life becomes genuinely signifi- 
cant, wiiliam James says that this applies with equal force 
to that period of life known as adolescence; no period has 
as much significance for the individual or for the race, 
ana no period is so fraught with eagerness, an eagerness 
concomitant with a new and intensified life." 

Having made a study in chapters one and two of the 
instincts and the various aspects of consciousness as 
memory , imag inat i on and such, and having in the opening of 
this chapter oresented a general characterization of the 
adolescent period it -'ill be of interest to follow the 
aspects of consciousness into the adolescent period and 

1. Kirkpatrick.E. A . — The Individual in the Making chap. 9 pp. 253-4 

Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston 1911 

2. Pringle, R. Adolescence and High School rroblems chap .3 p. 32 

'D.C. Heath & CO. 1922 Boston, U .Y.^ Chicago 

3 . ip id chap. 3 p. 22 




discover the changes they undergo—discover how they become 
modified or in tens if ied , developed or suppressed. 

Early in the discussion the instincts were mentioned 
as being a part of the native endowment of the individual. 
Instincts were characterized as being unlearned tendencies 
th t appear as the aporopriate object is presented to the 
sense as a stimulus. But the element of essential interest 
to us is the quality of variability or of modifiability 
that characterizes the instinctive side of the child's 
life. The child is constantly giving expression to the 
instinctive urge within her but gradually as she devel oos 
and takes on knowledge these instincts that she expressed 
so feely in babyhood will be influenced by experience and 


directed into other channels. By the time the child has 
reached adolescence her instinctive feelings have become 
greatly developed and many are released that had never re- 
sponded to a stimulus before. The adolescent is more vividly 
conscious of personality both in herslf and in others and 

of the relations between persons and the social order. 


"Normally the strongest instinctive interest^of this period 
are race passion and personal ambition." Because of this 
new sensitiveness the instinct of self esteem is released. 
The adolescent girl places a value upon herself as she sees 
herslf related to society and its members. In some this 

Moxcey.Liary B. — Girlhood a nd C hara c ter chap. 17 pp. 301-2 

Adingaon rress N.Y.& Cincinnati 1916 




instinct takes the fora; of self-assertion ana in others 
the form of self-abasement. In most girls there is a 
fluctuation between these two extremes. The ego-preservative 
instinct takes on new meaning because of social relations. 

The sexual and parental instincts that have been 
orominent during all the life of the child become very 
pronounced during the period of adolescence. The little 
girl mothering her doll or her little sister has revealed 
her parental instinct but during adolescence the same instinct 
expresses itself in a different way 9 namely , in her interest 
for the opposite sex. Her sexual life is rapidly changing, 
is uncertain and tends to a restlessness which leads her to 
want the novel and the exciting thing to happen. Companion- 
ship with boys is the center of her interest and it consti- 
tutes the most excitement for her. 

"The change which takes place in the instinct of «3 

child constitutes the most powerful safe-guards' morally 

and is a powerful deterrent to more deleterious forms of 

vulgarity ana vice. This adolescent reserve is a priceless 

moral asset, which can hardly be too highly respected or 

too greatly honored by tnose who are concerned with the 


welfare of youth." The adolescent is instinctively modest 
even though as a child she seemed to be entirely lacking 
in such a quality, but as she comes into a consciousness 
of her relationship with other beings the proper stimulus 

* Tracy .Frederick — Psychology of ad o lescence chap. 5 p. 56 

Mackillan Co. i*.Y. 1921 



is applied to the inheret instinct of moaesty and her conauct 
is of a very different nature. Youth is becoming more 
vividly conscious of personality both in herself and in 
others and in relations between persons in the social 
order. This social relation calls up new instincts which are 
brought into full expression. In fact, the experiences of 
adolescence tend to erive full rein to all the energies and 
powers, both physical and mental,of toe individual. 

During adolescence there is a marked change in 
sensations. Every nerve, every brain track una every muscle 
is highly sensitive and this results in the intensity of 
every sensation. The response t~> stimuli is keen, the brain 
is especially receptive and the muscles are full of energy 
to do wh-au the brain bids anu in many o^ses to qo more 
than the brain bids. This extreme sensitivity and voluntary 
energy in closest touch with the voluntary reflexes of 
the body. "It is as though stimulation of any sensory or 
motor mechanism were projected outward anu inward and re- 
flected from center to center , stimulating more and aore of 
the organi sm .. .Closely related to these involu- tary reflexes 
as factors in emotion is the keeness of resoonse of all the 
special senses and the vigor of the voluntary muscular 
activity." This responsiveness to muscular stimuli is the 
basis of the adolescent's interest in work and play,amuse- 

Moxcey ,^ K . -- Girlhood and character 
ibingdon .tress N.Y.& Cincinnati 

chap. 10 p. 174 


ment and achievement. The keenness of the senses for stimu- 
lation by light , c j1 or , sound and touch is the basis of the 
sympathetic interest in art and music and nature. The 
responsive energy of the brain cor., ections by which ideas 
are associated is the basis of the keei: intellectual interest 
and zest in executive efficiency in practical affairs. The 
responsiveness of the girl's whole organism to any stimulus 
from any source is the basis of her emotional ardor, of her 
social , personal and moral ideals. 

The change that comes in the aspect of memory during 
adolescence is not especially worthy of mention. It is 
true that the memory span is longer because of greater 
concentration. The small child attends one thing for a 
very short time and therefore remembers it for a limited 
amount of time. But the youth is capable of intensive study 
and concentration on a problem and this is conducive to more 
accurate menory . Another contributing factor that is some 
what augmented during this period is the ever growing ex- 
perience which makes it possible to form more associations 
which are the basis of much of memory. There is a rapid 
expansion of interest so attention is given to a greater 
variety of activities and ideas than in childhood. There is 
a continuous growth and enrichment of memory both in 
material and in accuracy. 

Adolescence is the period of greatest romantic imagi- 
nation. "The great emotional imaginative change in adoles- 

58 . 

cence comes after sixteen. It is the birth of a richer 
emotional life dependent upon a wider range of associations 
and upon physiological changes, and is the dawn of the 
most vivid imaginative period." 1 "The kind of material 
for this intellectual and emotional imagery is being ac- 
cumulated in these years of middle adolescence and the 
plastic mind is being given a permanent set." * The imagi- 
nation shows buoyancy and virility in adolescence and late 
in the period it shows creativity and evidence of being 
unaer the control of the intellect. The imagination begins 
to construct and to utilize its reproductive material , re- 
arranging and recombining it into new forms. 

In the adolescent period some of the longest strides 
are taken in the process of reasoning, of organizing and 
consolidating ideas. There comes a marked expansion in the 
range of the individual's conceptions as ell as the quality 
of those conceptions. "The progress of an individual mind 
toward maturity consists partly in a steady increase in 
the fulness , richness and the variety of the stream of mental 
content itself, ana partly in a steady advance toward a more 
perfect control, more complete correlation and more adequate 
interpretation of these subjective processes in reference 
to truth and morality." 

1. Woxcey.Mary E. — girlhood ana Character chap. 10 p. 174 

-'.bingdon Press Tj.Y. & Cincinnati 1916 

2. Libby, Walter — in American Journal of Psychology vol.19 p. 249 


3 - Trac facimfgn^ chap - 7 p - 84 





As the girl matures aria approaches the later period 
of adolescence she has a longing for freedom and expansion 
in the energies of the mind. The intellect arrows into inde- 
pendent judgments and the thirst for truth, for knowledge, 
and the capacity to respond to demands of a logical system 
are noticeably strengthened. "The cognitive aspects of the 
mental life, or the strictly rational functions as distinguished 
from the directly sensuous, perceptive and representative, 
are a matter of growth ana gradual attainment." This pro- 
cess is under way during adolescence and it is then that 
the more abstract relations as whole and part, cause and effect, 
genus ana species become the bases of concept making. 

Children do not share in the characteristics of the 
higher emotions because of the lack: of that experience and 
mental power which are indispensable to those higher an ot ions. 
Young children are moved directly by the primary instincts, 
ana the feeling phase of their instinctive behavior is 
constituted by the simple emotions of fear , repulsion, anger 
and the like .But youth brings with it the capacity for these 
higher and more complex feelings. Youth is a time of deep 
and strong emotion. Sexual development is not the whole 
cause of the' quickening of the emotional nature nor aoes it 
provide the only objects by which the emotions may be stirred. 
The adolescent experiences a general expansion in all directions 

Tracy , Frederick — Psychology of Adolescence chap. 7 p. 93 
MacMillan Go. N.Y. 1921 




and such an expansion tenas to liberate feeling. The intel- 
lectual powers broaden to a greater grasp, and the capacities 
of judgment and reflection unfold. The girl gets a larger 
conception of 'hat she owes to herself and of what her pos- 
sibilities are for herself in the world. These new potenti- 
alities, new ideas, new judgments are prime factors in the 
life of feeling and have their part in determining the 
character and the intensity of the emotions. Since the 
youth responds to a greater variety of stimuli the whole 
range of her emotional life is greatly enlarged. 

It is during this period that self-gain may be put aside 
entirely and .deep passions for certain ends may be brought 
to motivate life. The girl , esoeo ially in early adolescence, 
often becomes enthra led and captivated "by a personality 
and she will give up herself in true devotion to this indi- 
vidual. Love of goodness for its own sake may become a deep 
passion. But as a whole this intense emotion of the youth 
is deficient in steadiness ana consistency. 

In later years of the period the tides of feeling 
are better regulated and their ebb and flow are just a 
shade more sober and steady; not because feeling is any less 
strong, but because it has become subject in a larger 
measure than before to the control of higher thought powers. 

The process of establishing volitional control or of 
training the will begins very early— -as early, in fact, as the 
first experiences of the checking of one impulse by another, 


or of the clash of two ideas in their motor tendencies. 
With the coming of adolescence the changes are so decidedly 
marked ana the growth is rapid both physical ly, mentally 
and social ly t that the eouilibrium of the inner life of the 
child is noticeably disturbed and volitional control is not 
dependable. Feelings, impulses, instinctive tendencies , desires 
and appetites exert themselves with new power, and the problem 
of control becomes a very difficult one. During childhood 
the control has been largely an external one affecting motor 
activities but during adolescence the control is transferred 
from without to within. In later adolescence the motor machi- 
nery becomes better regulated and is u der more effectual 
government. Thought has caught up with feelinsr. M Jhereas in the 
past, action for the individual was the result of impulse, 
now in adolescence it is the outcome of deliberation. The 
will to control, on its positive side , involves the formation 
of oabits. Habits are formed , broken and modified almost wholly 
in pre-adult days and it finds a place ana plays a part in 
every department of the mental and physical life. At adoles- 
cence habits may be formed with a clearer consciousness of 
what is involved c.nd with a more definite purpose in view. 
The formation of habits in youth may be more self-originated 
and self-controlled than in childhood. 

Considering the changes that have been noted the 
whole of consciousness of the adolescent constitutes many 
variations from the stream of consciousness of the individual 


6 ] 

in chl l*?* o- ^irlhoo*, ,/ith these specific changes 
analysed ne. problems of leadership are presented and the 
religious educator should be fully cognizant of these 
new problems ana their implications. 





1. Problems to meet 

2. Qualifications of the leader 


The religious leader of college girls recognizes 
the strategic character of the period ana considers it 
from many points of view the mopt critical a«;e of the girl. 
The girl's hole personality is in the process of being 
unified. In some instances there is a complete change of 
character depending very largely upon her environment and 
the trend of her thinking. This age marks the beginning of 
the supremacy of the intellect in directing actions. The 
intellectual conceptions play a prominent part and her emotions, 
ideals, actions and habits are molded by those conceptions. 
She is trying to develop and harmonise her political, social 
aesthetic .moral, philosophical ana religious ideas so her 
future life may be consistent and effieient. General con- 
fusion, revolution, tumult and dissatisfaction may result in 
the absence of sympathy and vise leadership. Her physical 
and mental life are the keenest she has yet experienced, 
her whole being is completely energized , her sense are keenest, 
her memory is more accurate and richer, her imagination more 
creative, her reasoning and judgment more balanced and sane, 
her emotions more intense and her will is more forceful* 
As a whole her pers onality ,her self is at its best, is more 
capable of assim': lating[of acquiring and of independently 
choosing, arranging and interpreting facts in a well-ordered 
system. Because of such innumerable ana unlimited potentialities 



of the girl of this age the very best leadership is demanded. 
The qualifications of such leaders remains an open question 
with few adequate sources for enlightenment. 

The psychology of college girls is indicative and 
suggestive of the psychology of those who lead, this group. 
"The characteristics of the leader must be complementary 
to the characteristics of the led — the former must supply 
whax the latter demands." 1 

Before analyzing the characteristics of a leader 
perhaps a few definitions would clarify our conception of 
what a leader is and what his or her function is. "A leader 
is simply a high type of man--the most thoroughly human man 
in sight is the most representative leaaer. The qualities 
four.d in him are those you find in every good man, only in, a 
leader in a markea degree. He may or may not have conspicuous 
talent or high genius... A leader is one who goes before, who 
keeps in advance of the crowd •ithout detaching hi self from 
the crowd,but so influencing them as to attach them to his 
ideal of self-hood. He contracts the crowd into the span of 
his own personal ity .. .He not only contracts the crowd into 
himself but he expands himself into the crowd. He seeks out 
their undeveloped capacity and makes it hungry for self- 
expression ;he is the centripetal force th t focuses in a 
com. :on purpose their energiesjhe becomes to them what 
motive is to personality ."^ "They that originate , d ictate 

1. Khan,/.bdul kajid — Psychology of Leadership chap. 4 p. 54 

T.Fisher Urwin, London 1915 

8. Brent, C.H.— lead e rah ip Lecture 1 pp. 12, 13, 14 

Longman's Grreen & Co. London 1930 




? 1 



ana exercise their initiative are the leaders." "A leader 
is one who leaas or conducts; especially one fitted by force 
of iaeas, character or genius or by strength of will or ad- 
ministrative ability, to arouse, incite and direct men in 


conduct and achievement." The three men quoted agree essen- 
tially in what a leader is. With this in mind we may approach 
the characteristics of a leader thinking psychologically, 
for the most part, correlating with and applying: the leadership 
elements analyzed to the college group. The elements of the 
mina stream of the leader will be similar to those of the 

The leaaer as well as the led is a bundle of instincts 
plus intelligence and the greater the am ou. t of intelligence 
the more reall; human she is and the more a leader. To be 
thoroughly human she must have experienced the same instincts 
ana during adolescence she must have brought them is a 
masterly fashion under the control of intelligence. She must 
exceed the girl in later adolescence in this accomplishment 
but because of her same instinctive tendencies she will 
have a sympathy for the girl who is trying to bring her 
instincts under control. 

The true leader will be super-sensitive to outside 
stimuli. She will be able to Quickly receive the sensation 
of external tendencies , to keenly sense attitudes , feel ings 

1. Khan, Abdul ivia.j id-- Psychol ogy of Leadership chap. 4 p. 52 

T. Fisher Urwin, London 1915 

2. Miller , A.M. -- Leadership and morale chap.l pp. 7-8 

Putnam & Son K.Y. 1920 


and aesires and to readily assimilate and interpret these 
suggestions. This extreme sensitivity will permit her to 
discover trends a pace ahead of the group she is leading 
ana her alert ana keen aoitvity of her whole being will 
contribute to her success as a leaaer. 

The leader should put into her subconscious self 
the kina of things she would like to have come out. The 
pouring in Drocess and the mlling out process ere correlative. 
What is put into the mina will come out hy Deliberate 
conscious effort. Consequently an effective memory proves itself 
a great aid in the pouring in process and contributes its 
part to leadership. Memory is dependent upon learning. The 
leaaer in learning must necessarily emphasize attention or 
the focus of the stream of consciousness in order to tho- 
roughly understand , t o adeouately associate ami to fully 
plant the idea in memory. A rich and accurate memory will 
contribute to the resourcefulness of the le der ana this 
holds a place in the front ranks of leadership qualities. 

Richness of memory for the leader is the basis of the 
leader's crowning virtue--the imagination. The leader has need 
of both the reproductive and creative types of imagination. 
Imagination is at the root of complete u -d erstariding;through 
an imaginative study the leader arrives at real ity; imagi- 
nation is the father of initiative. The leader can set no 
ideals for her followers without creativity for in idealistic 
thinking the Imagination comes into its own in the realm 





of intellectuality. Imagination is at the heart of all 
humor for it glvefl the leader the ability to visualize 
quickly and vividly the surprising and incongruous 11 
Situations, 1 right use of imagination will enable a leader 
to see herself as others see her and to see herself in the 
proper perspective. Sympathy and justice woulu not he 
possible without an imagine tive leader for it helps the 
leader to out herself in the place of the person led. The 
psychological process then, of imagination is vital to a 
successful leader because of tile numerous qualities which it 
pro jects . 

Emotionally the leader a^re not be lacking. A mixture 
of emotionality and intellectuality proves wise. It is a • 
well recognized principle in psychology that the expression 
of an emotion tends to develop a similar emotion in others. 

Every eood habit investment the leader makes assures 
more thorouphly her success as a leaner among college girls. 
Any haoit she forms is likely to prove of use at some time, 
by reason of co-ordination or transfer fron the situation 
at hand to the identical elements in another situation. Or 
further , there may be a transfer of habits through ideals of 
procedure , i . e . through the conscious selection fro,:; a stock 
of habits of a new combination of responses that will enable 
the leader to meet the new situation effectively. Habit 
formation involves directed and controlled action, and will 
power that is an essential element in leadership. 


The psychological, factors that have been mentioned 
are exceedingly significant in any set of qualifications 
that would be arranged to a oply to/a leader. They involve 
practically the same psychological principles when thinking 
of them in connection with the leader as are involved when 
they are in conjunction with the person to be led. Practically, 
the single variation eomes in the degree of the development 

and intensity of the experiences. There might be various other 
Qualities of leadership mentioned. These however would hinge 
upon the psychological f ctors that have been analyzed here. 

The leader possessing these f ctors developed to the 
man. er and to the degree that has been mentioned needs to 
come to a unification pf personality that will permeate 
all life which it touches. "All leaders worthy the name 
see life steadily and see it wholly;they discern more dis- 
tinctly than their fellows , evidences of purpose in them- 
selves and in human life at large ;they aid the world purpose 
by their activity ana surrender to it." The leader must 
be able to harmonize the facts of life, the ideals of religion, 

and to ao this her psychological development as outlined is 
fundamental. The representative leader of college girls 
must live the richest possible life ana share It with the 
girls who are likely struggling to unify their personalities, 
to arrive at positions, to clarify their thought and to 
direct their haoits ana will into channels of worth . The real 
leader's life is so human and well developed that it is 




adaptable to each member of the college group regardless 
of her interest f temperament or problem. 



1. Religious education has failed to study the 
college girl 

2. Mind stream of adolescent girl is different from 
her consciousness at any other period 

3. Changes in adolescence cause new problems 
r. Special leaders must meet these problems 


Religious education has gone far in the study of 
the child from birth through her high school experiences 
but there h- s oeen more or less of an abrupt break: at 
that point leaving the girl of later .adolescence or the 
college a°:e in the hands of religious educators. Investi- 
gation of five catalogues of the schools of religion of 
five leading institutions of America reveal the fact that 
comoara tively little is offered for the training of religious 
leaaers of the college girl. This would suggest and indicate 
that the attention of the field of religious education is 
being centered upon the child and would further indicate 
that one of two conclusions is true , first , that the college 
girl is not in need of religious attention because of her 
earlier training or second, that the field of religious 
education hus not been able to expand itself to include the 
college age. There may be various reasons for religious 
education failing to take a larger scope. It mar be because 
of limited resources or possibly because of the limited 
vision of its workers. 

Since the girl in adolescenc has oeen left to secular 
educators we might expect that their task has been to ad- 
minister the usual curriculum to her. Such has oeen the case. 
Religious agencies have made few and feeole attempts to 
understand the psychological development that is peculiar to 
the girl during that operiod. 




I have attempted to show in this thesis that the 
college girl presents a problem that is unique and peculiar 
to her particular age and requirements. Her whole stream of 
consciousness is noticeably and remarkably different from 
her consciousness during the period of girlhood. The various 
elements or aspects have been a eveloped ,have changed, have 
become enriched ana thoroughly energized. Such a change 
presents a new set of problems to the leader of the girl in 
later adolescence and these changes become unique and warrant 
special consideration . 

To approach the matter of adolescent states in any 
satisfactory man- er an intense studx of the aDDearances, 
devel opment , nature and characteristics of elements necessarily 
haa to be made. Even though the changes may be very great 
the mina stream continues to consist of the same materials 
as the earlier consciousness. Consequently its analysis 
was of great significance to the development of the thesis. 
Each previous state tends to contribute to the subsequent state 
and to become in fact, essentially the following state, 
possibly ^th enrichment ana development because of experience 
ana expanded range of activity and participation. 

Since the stuff from which consciousness of the girl in 


later adolescence is made^ essential ly the same as that of the 
chila it follows that the greater portion of the analysis 
h u io be given over to the analytical study of the various 
aspects of consciousness as they appear and grow. Only altera- 



tions then, would have to be made to have an understanding 
of that period. 

One chapter has been given over to the study of 
adolescence and the changes, psychologically, that are pecu- 
liar to that period. Arising ou^.of these adolescent characteris- 
tics came peculiar problems that loom large in the conside- 
rations of capable leaders. Leaders for this particular age 
were seen to be unique personalities who have arrived at a 
comparatively high development psychologically and who have 
usea this psychological development to advantage in the uni- 
fying of their personalities. The same psychological factors 
were seen to be present in the mind stream of the leader 
that were present in the consciousness of the adolescent 
girl f only these factors were intensified , enriched and developed 
in a unioue manner. 

1 o 





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Henry Holt & Co. N.Y. 1908 (Fourth Revised 

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Khan, Abdul ffiajid Psychology of Leadership 

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Pillsbury, \.B. Fundamentals of Psychology 

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